The butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is a flowering shrub known for its fragrant and colorful blooms. Their long-lasting flowers add beauty and visual interest to the garden throughout the summer months.
While butterfly bushes are primarily valued for their ornamental qualities, they can also contribute to biodiversity and ecosystem health by providing food and habitat for insects and other wildlife. They grow best with coneflowers, liatris, and salvia.
Butterfly Bush Overview
3–12 ft. tall, 3-8-ft. wide
Purple, pink, blue, white, yellow
Moist, well-drained soil
What Is A Butterfly Bush?
Butterfly bush is a popular deciduous shrub that typically grows around 5–10 feet tall. Also called Buddleja davidii, it has arching branches with long, pointed leaves that are green on top and fuzzy underneath.
The most striking feature of the butterfly bush is its flowers, which come in a variety of colors, including purple, pink, red, white, and orange. The flowers are arranged in long, showy clusters that bloom from summer to fall. These bushes are primarily grown as outdoor plants in gardens, landscapes, and naturalized areas.
As for toxicity, butterfly bushes are not considered highly toxic to humans, but they may cause mild gastrointestinal upset if ingested. It's best to plant butterfly bushes in a location where pets and children are less likely to come into contact with them and to monitor them closely if you have pets that may chew on plants.
Butterfly Bush Care
Caring for a butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is generally easy, and it's a favorite among gardeners for its beautiful flowers and ability to attract butterflies and other pollinators.
Since these purple flower plants can be invasive in some regions, it is essential to choose non-invasive cultivars and to monitor butterfly bushes for signs of spreading beyond the intended area.
Grow butterfly bush in areas where it receives at least 6–8 hours of direct sunlight daily. This ensures vibrant blooms and optimal growth. While they can tolerate some shade, especially in hotter climates, flowering may be reduced. South-facing slopes or raised beds provide excellent drainage and maximize sun exposure.
Butterfly bushes prefer well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They are tolerant of various soil types, including sandy, loamy, and clay soils, as long as the soil drains well. If your soil is heavy or poorly drained, consider amending it with compost or planting the butterfly bush in a raised bed to improve drainage.
Water newly planted butterfly bushes regularly to keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged during the first growing season. This helps the plant establish a strong root system. Once established, butterfly bushes are relatively drought-tolerant. Water them deeply during periods of drought, providing about 1 inch of water per week. Water at the base of the plant to avoid wetting the foliage, which can promote disease.
In colder climates (zones 5–9), the ideal time to plant is in early spring, after the danger of frost has passed and the soil has warmed up. This gives the plant plenty of time to establish itself before winter arrives. You can also plant butterfly bushes in early fall, at least 6–8 weeks before the first frost. This allows the roots to develop before the cold weather sets in.
In warm climates (zones 10–11), the best time to plant is in the fall, after the summer heat has subsided. This gives the plant time to establish itself before the hot, dry weather of summer returns. In very warm climates, you may even be able to plant butterfly bushes in winter, as long as the soil is not frozen.
Temperature and Humidity
They generally prefer warm temperatures and moderate humidity levels. They thrive in full sun and are tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, but they perform best in USDA hardiness zones 5 to 9. In terms of temperature care, they can withstand occasional periods of heat and drought once established but may benefit from regular watering during hot, dry weather.
In early spring, apply a balanced, slow-release fertilizer formulated for flowering shrubs according to the manufacturer's instructions. This provides the nutrients necessary for healthy growth and abundant flowering. Avoid excessive fertilization, as it can stimulate lush vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.
Butterfly bush pruning encourages new growth, removes dead or damaged branches, and enhances the overall appearance of the plant. Perform annual pruning in late winter or early spring, before new growth begins. This timing allows the plant to recover quickly and promotes vigorous growth and abundant flowering during the growing season.
Use clean, sharp pruning shears or loppers to make clean cuts without causing damage to the branches, and wear gardening gloves to protect your hands from thorns and sharp edges.
Remove Dead or Diseased Branches
Begin by inspecting the butterfly bush for dead, diseased, or damaged branches. Using your pruning shears or loppers, carefully remove these branches at their base, making clean cuts just above the collar of the branch (the swollen area where it meets the main stem).
Next, evaluate the overall shape and size of the butterfly bush. If it has become overgrown or leggy, you can cut back the branches to maintain a more compact and tidy appearance.
If the butterfly bush is densely branched, you can selectively thin out some of the branches to improve air circulation and light penetration throughout the plant.
Propagating Butterfly Bush
Propagating a butterfly bush can be done through several methods, including stem cuttings. Here are the steps for propagating butterfly bush from stem cuttings:
Select Cuttings: Choose healthy, non-flowering stems from the butterfly bush, ideally in the spring or early summer. Cuttings should be 4 to 6 inches long and have several nodes (where leaves are attached).
Prepare Cuttings: Remove the lower leaves from the bottom half of each cutting, leaving a few leaves at the top. This will reduce moisture loss and encourage rooting.
Dip in Rooting Hormone: Dip the cut end of each stem into rooting hormone powder to promote root development.
Plant Cuttings: Insert the prepared stem cuttings into a pot filled with well-draining, sterile potting mix. Plant the cuttings so that at least two nodes are buried beneath the soil.
Provide Care: Place the pot in a warm, bright location with indirect sunlight. Keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged, and mist the cuttings regularly to maintain humidity.
Root Development: Over the next several weeks, monitor the cuttings for signs of root development. Once roots have formed, typically within 4 to 6 weeks, the cuttings can be gently tugged to check for resistance, indicating that they have been established.
Transplant: Once the cuttings have developed roots, carefully transplant them into individual pots or the garden.
How to Grow Butterfly Bush From Seed
It is possible to grow butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) from seeds, although it may take longer to establish compared to other propagation methods like stem cuttings. Collect seeds from mature butterfly bushes once the seed pods have dried and turned brown in late summer or early fall. Harvest the seeds by gently crushing the dried pods to release the small, papery seeds.
Clean the seeds by removing any debris or chaff, and then stratify them to mimic natural winter conditions. To stratify, place the seeds in a plastic bag with dampened peat moss or vermiculite and refrigerate them for 4 to 6 weeks. After stratification, sow the seeds in pots or trays filled with well-draining potting mix. Press the seeds lightly into the soil surface and cover them with a thin layer of additional potting mix.
Potting and Repotting Butterfly Bush
Most varieties of butterfly bush are too large and vigorous for successful container growing. However, dwarf varieties like the Lo and Behold and Pugster series, which typically stay around 2 feet tall and wide, can thrive in pots with proper care and repotting when needed. For potting, choose a container at least twice as deep and wide as the root ball of your butterfly bush. Opt for materials like terracotta or glazed ceramic that provide good drainage and aeration.
Butterfly bushes generally need repotting every 2–3 years when the pot becomes rootbound. Signs include slow growth, stunted leaves, and roots emerging from the drainage holes. Choose a pot one size larger than the previous one and repot in early spring or fall when the plant is dormant.
Winter care for butterfly bushes is particularly important, especially in colder climates where freezing temperatures and frost can potentially damage the plant.
Apply a thick layer of organic mulch, such as shredded bark, straw, or compost, around the base of the butterfly bush before the onset of winter. Mulch helps insulate the soil, retain moisture, and regulate soil temperature, which is especially beneficial during periods of freezing and thawing.
In regions with harsh winters or prolonged periods of freezing temperatures, consider wrapping the branches of the butterfly bush with burlap or frost cloth to provide additional protection from cold and frost damage.
In regions prone to late spring frosts or sudden temperature fluctuations, monitor weather forecasts closely and be prepared to provide additional protection to the butterfly bush if necessary.
Common Pests & Plant Diseases
Common pests that can affect butterfly bushes include aphids, spider mites, caterpillars (such as the caterpillars of the mullein moth), and scale insects. Aphids and spider mites may feed on the foliage, causing yellowing, wilting, or distortion of leaves, while caterpillars and scale insects can cause similar damage and may also produce webbing or sticky honeydew residue.
Additionally, butterfly bushes are susceptible to certain plant diseases, including powdery mildew, which appears as a white, powdery coating on leaves, and leaf spot diseases, characterized by dark spots or lesions on the foliage.
If pests or diseases are detected, treat them promptly using appropriate control measures. This may include handpicking pests, spraying with insecticidal soap or nem oil, or using fungicides according to label instructions.
How to Get Butterfly Bush to Bloom
Butterfly bushes crave sunshine and proper pruning for blooms. Ensure your bush gets at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Prune it back hard in late winter or early spring, cutting at least some stems down to 3–4 inches. Deadhead spent flowers throughout the season to encourage new blooms. Through a beautiful bloom, these flowers can add beauty to your flower bed ideas.
Several factors can hinder butterfly bush blooms:
Insufficient sunlight: Butterfly bushes need at least 6–8 hours of direct sun daily. Shade can reduce blooms.
Improper watering: Overwatering or underwatering can stress the plant, leading to fewer blooms.
Lack of nutrients: Ensure proper fertilization during the growing season to support flower production.
Incorrect pruning: Heavy pruning in spring can remove potential flower buds. Prune lightly in late winter or early spring.
Rootbound pot: In containers, repotting every 2-3 years is crucial to prevent rootbound issues that hinder flowering.
Pest or disease problems: Address any infestations or diseases promptly to prevent damage that can affect blooming.
Butterfly Bush Types
The butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is native to China and was first introduced to the world by European botanists and explorers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this time, numerous plant species from Asia were being discovered and brought back to Europe for study and cultivation.
There are several types of butterfly bushes, each with its unique characteristics and variations. Here's a brief overview:
Buddleja davidii: This is the most common species of butterfly bush and encompasses numerous cultivars with varying flower colors, including shades of purple, pink, white, and blue.
Dwarf Varieties: Dwarf butterfly bushes are compact versions of the standard Buddleja davidii, typically growing 2 to 3 feet tall. Examples include the 'Blue Chip' and 'Lo and Behold' series.
Variegated Varieties: These butterfly bushes feature foliage with variegated patterns. Varieties like 'Harlequin' have creamy-white margins on their leaves.
Bi-color Varieties: Some butterfly bushes produce flowers with striking bi-color combinations, such as 'Santana,' which has deep purple centers surrounded by lavender-pink petals.
Weeping Varieties: Examples include 'Purple Prince,' which has pendulous branches and deep purple flowers.
Challenges And Issues With With Butterfly Bush
The biggest problem with butterfly bush is invasiveness. In some regions, butterfly bushes can become invasive, spreading aggressively through self-seeding and outcompeting native plant species. It's important to be aware of the potential for invasiveness and to choose sterile or non-invasive cultivars where appropriate.
Without regular pruning, butterfly bushes can become overgrown and leggy, detracting from their appearance and reducing flowering. Annual pruning helps maintain the plant's shape and size and encourages abundant blooming.
By being aware of these common problems and taking proactive measures to address them, you can help ensure that your butterfly bushes remain healthy, vigorous, and beautiful year after year.
What is the average lifespan of butterfly bush?
The average lifespan of a butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is typically around 10 to 15 years, although some well-maintained specimens may live longer.
How can I use butterfly bush plant?
You can use a butterfly bush in your garden to attract butterflies and other pollinators, add color and fragrance with its flowers, create borders or hedges, and even grow it in containers for patios or balconies.
What makes butterfly bush different from butterfly weed?
Butterfly bush is a shrub known for its fragrant flowers that attract butterflies, while butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) is a perennial plant valued for its bright orange flowers that attract butterflies and serve as a host plant for monarch butterfly larvae.