The pansy is a cheerful plant that can brighten up any garden with its colorful flowers. These plants come in a variety of vibrant hues and are known for their "faces," which resemble little masks. Considered a relatively easy-to-grow flower, the Pansy can thrive in both garden beds and pots.
When it comes to caring for pansies, both the plant and the flowers require attention to ensure healthy growth and prolific blooming. With proper care, they can bloom from early spring through fall.
Pansy Plant Overview
Viola x wittrockiana
Perennial, annual, biennial
4-8 in. tall, 4-6 in. wide
Spring, summer, fall
USDA Growing Zone
What is a Pansy?
Pansies are colorful flowers belonging to the genus Viola, which includes several hundred species of plants in the Violaceae family. They are herbaceous annuals or short-lived perennials, typically grown as cool-season annuals in temperate climates. These charming blooms typically feature a dark center called the "face," surrounded by five petals with contrasting colors and patterns, resembling a whimsical mask.
They are often planted in early spring or fall, making them a popular choice for brightening up gardens, borders, containers, and hanging baskets during transitional seasons. These versatile flowers are suitable for various landscaping purposes, from edging flower beds to filling in gaps in garden borders.
Pansy Flower Care
While caring for both the pansy plant and its flowers involves similar principles such as adequate watering, sunlight, and feeding, paying attention to the specific needs of both ensures optimal growth and a profusion of colorful blooms throughout the growing season.
Pansies thrive in cool weather and prefer full sun to partial shade. While they can tolerate some shade, they generally produce more flowers when grown in a location that receives at least 4-6 hours of direct sunlight each day. If planting pansies in a hot climate, providing them with afternoon shade can help prevent heat stress and prolong flowering.
Before planting pansies, prepare the soil by loosening it to a depth of 6–8 inches and incorporating organic matter such as compost or well-aged manure. This improves soil structure, drainage, and fertility, creating an ideal growing environment for pansies.
Pansy plants are cool-season flowers that prefer temperatures between 45°F and 65°F (7°C to 18°C). They can tolerate light frosts but may suffer damage if exposed to prolonged periods of freezing temperatures. In regions with hot summers, pansies may struggle and may stop flowering altogether.
Proper watering is crucial for the health and vigor of pansy flowers. Pansies prefer consistently moist soil but can suffer if waterlogged. Water the plants deeply and thoroughly whenever the soil surface feels dry to the touch, ensuring that the water reaches the root zone. It's best to water pansies at the base of the plant to avoid wetting the foliage excessively, as this can promote fungal diseases.
Pansy flowers generally prefer moderate humidity levels. They are adaptable plants that can tolerate a range of humidity conditions, but they tend to thrive in environments with moderate humidity levels between 40% and 60%. High humidity, especially in combination with warm temperatures, can increase the risk of fungal diseases such as powdery mildew and botrytis, which can affect the foliage and flowers of pansies.
Pansy flowers benefit from regular feeding to support healthy growth and prolific blooming. Choose a balanced fertilizer with equal proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, formulated for flowering plants. Apply the fertilizer, usually every two to four weeks during the growing season. Avoid over-fertilizing, as this can lead to excessive foliage growth at the expense of flower production.
Deadheading is the process of removing spent flowers from a plant. When pansy flowers fade and the petals start to wither, it's essential to pinch them off at the base of the stem using your fingers or small pruners.
This practice prevents the plant from investing energy into seed production and encourages it to produce new blooms instead. By deadheading regularly, you'll stimulate continuous flowering throughout the growing season, ensuring your pansy bed or container remains colorful and attractive.
How to Grow Pansies From Seed
Pansies may self-seed in the garden if left to produce seeds. The seeds may fall to the ground and germinate under favorable conditions, resulting in new pansy plants in the same area. However, self-seeded plants may not always resemble the parent plants, as they can cross-pollinate with other nearby pansies or related species.
Many modern pansy varieties available commercially are hybrids. Hybrid pansies are created through controlled cross-pollination between different pansy varieties, resulting in offspring with specific desirable traits.
When growing pansies from seed, whether they are hybrids or open-pollinated varieties, the seeds contain genetic information from both parent plants. While hybrid seeds may produce plants with a mix of traits, open-pollinated seeds tend to produce offspring more similar to the parent plants.
Here is how to grow hybrid pansies from seed:
Choose high-quality hybrid pansy seeds from a reputable supplier.
Start seeds indoors 8–10 weeks before the last frost date.
Sow seeds in trays filled with seed-starting mix, lightly pressing them into the soil surface.
Keep the soil moist and provide adequate sunlight.
Seeds typically germinate within 7–14 days
Once seedlings have developed several true leaves, transplant.
Acclimate seedlings over a span of two weeks, slowly acquainting them with outdoor environments prior to outdoor planting.
When planting pansies, it's best to do so in early spring or fall, as they thrive in cooler temperatures. Choose a location with well-draining soil and partial to full sun exposure for optimal growth. Prepare the soil by adding organic matter, such as compost, to improve its texture and fertility.
When planting, space the pansy plants about 6–8 inches apart to allow for adequate air circulation. Dig a hole slightly larger than the root ball of the pansy plant and gently place it in the hole, backfilling it with soil and patting it down lightly.
Water the newly planted pansies thoroughly to settle the soil around the roots. Similarly, applying a layer of mulch around the plants helps retain moisture and suppresses weed growth. With proper care and attention, these purple flower plants will thrive and provide colorful blooms throughout the season.
Potting and Repotting
Pansy flowers add vibrant color and charm to patios, balconies, and gardens. Plant seeds or transplants in late summer or early fall for winter blooms, or early spring for summer blooms. To pot, choose a well-draining pot with drainage holes by considering the mature size of the plant. Gently place seeds or transplants in the soil, covering the seeds lightly.
Repot pansies every 2-3 years when the plant outgrows its current pot or the soil becomes depleted. The best time to repot is in early spring or fall, when the weather is cool. Choose a slightly larger pot that is 2-3 inches wider than the current one.
Gently loosen the root ball, tease out any tangled roots, and repot in the same way as before, ensuring proper drainage. Water thoroughly, and resume your regular watering and feeding routine. They can be your edible flower border in an urban garden.
Pansies are generally tolerant of cooler temperatures and can withstand light frosts and chilly weather. However, severe winter conditions, including freezing temperatures and heavy snowfall, can damage or kill pansy plants, especially if they are not adequately protected.
While most pansy varieties are relatively cold-hardy, some may be more susceptible to cold damage than others. For example, certain trailing or delicate varieties may be less resilient in colder climates compared to more robust or compact varieties.
During periods of extreme cold or frost, cover pansy plants with frost cloth, burlap, or a blanket to provide additional protection from freezing temperatures and icy conditions.
If growing pansies in containers, move them to a sheltered location, such as a porch or garage, during severe winter weather to protect them from freezing temperatures and harsh winds.
Common Pests and Plant Diseases
Pansies, like many plants, are susceptible to a few common pests and diseases. Here are some of the main ones, along with preventive measures:
These small insects feed on the sap of plants and can cause damage to pansies by sucking out their juices. Preventive measures include regularly inspecting plants for aphids and using insecticidal soap or neem oil to control infestations.
Thrips are tiny, slender insects that feed on plant tissue, causing stippling or silvering of leaves. To prevent thrips, maintain good garden hygiene, and consider using insecticidal soap or predatory insects like ladybugs to control populations.
Slugs and Snails
These pests are nocturnal and feed on the leaves and flowers of pansies, leaving behind slimy trails. You can prevent them by hand-picking them off plants, using beer traps, or applying barriers like copper tape around plant beds.
Powdery mildew appears as a white, powdery coating on the leaves of pansies, inhibiting photosynthesis and weakening the plant. To prevent them, space plants properly to promote air circulation, avoide overhead watering, and apply fungicidal sprays as needed.
Also known as gray mold, botrytis blight causes grayish-brown spots on pansy flowers and foliage, eventually leading to wilting and decay. To prevent botrytis blight, avoid overhead watering, promote good air circulation, and remove and dispose of infected plant material.
Root rot is caused by fungal pathogens that thrive in waterlogged soil, leading to the decay of the plant's roots. They can be prevented by planting pansies in well-draining soil, avoiding overwatering, and ensuring proper drainage in containers.
How to Get Pansies to Bloom
Pansies are generally considered regular bloomers, particularly in cooler weather conditions. They tend to produce abundant flowers throughout the growing season. With proper care, including adequate sunlight, regular watering, and feeding with a balanced fertilizer, pansies can bloom profusely.
Pinching back the growing tips of pansy plants, especially early in the season, can promote bushier growth and more flower production. Pinch off the top inch or two of each stem when the plants are young to encourage branching and the development of multiple flower buds.
Planting pansies alongside companion plants that attract pollinators, such as bees and butterflies, can enhance flower production through increased pollination. Flowers that attract pollinators include marigolds, alyssum, and dianthus, among others. Dianthus is an easy-to-grow small flower.
Pansy Flower Types
If you want to ensure consistency and reliability in the garden, you can choose pansies from the same series. Pansies from the same series refers to a group of pansy cultivars or varieties that are bred and selected together under a specific series name. Here are some of them:
Cool Wave Pansies: Trailing pansies ideal for hanging baskets and containers, offering a cascade of vibrant colors.
Delta Pansies: Compact and early-flowering pansies with large blooms and a wide range of colors.
Majestic Giants Pansies: Extra-large flowers with rich, velvety colors, perfect for adding a bold statement to garden beds.
Matri Pansies: Uniform and compact plants with prolific flowering, suitable for mass planting and edging.
Frizzle Sizzle Pansies: Unique ruffled petals that add texture and interest to flower beds and borders.
Nature Pansies: Petite pansies with intricate markings and delicate features, perfect for small spaces and containers.
Ultima Pansies: High-performing pansies with superior disease resistance and long-lasting blooms, ideal for landscape use.
When gardeners choose pansies from the same series, they can expect a level of consistency in terms of appearance and performance among the different cultivars within that series. This makes it easier to plan and design garden beds, containers, or landscapes, as the pansies will complement each other well and create a cohesive look.
Challenges With Pansies
Although pansies are resilient, these little flowers can be susceptible to various problems. Here's a breakdown of some common issues you might encounter with your pansies and some tips on how to address them:
This can be caused by insufficient light, overwatering, or nutrient deficiency. Ensure your pansies are getting at least 6 hours of sunlight daily, and adjust your watering and fertilizing practices as needed.
Lack of blooms
This could be due to several factors, including incorrect planting time, insufficient sunlight, nutrient deficiency, or even the variety you chose. Make sure you're planting your pansies at the right time for your climate and providing them with the care they need to thrive.
This can be caused by underwatering, overwatering, root rot, or heat stress. Check the soil moisture and adjust your watering accordingly. If the roots appear mushy or brown, your plant may have root rot. In hot weather, provide your pansies with some shade or mulch around the base of the plant to help retain moisture.
Are pansies edible?
Yes, their petals can be added to salads for a mild, floral flavor.
Can pansies come back year after year?
Some varieties are considered biennials and may rebloom the following year under proper conditions.
Are pansies poisonous to dogs and cats?
Yes, they can cause mild stomach upset if ingested.